SAMHD1: At the Crossroad of Cell Proliferation, Immune Responses, and Virus Restriction

SAMHD1: At the Crossroad of Cell Proliferation, Immune Responses, and Virus Restriction

Data de publicació online: 01/10/2015 Data de publicació en paper: 1 Novembre 2015 Revista: Trends in Microbiology

Abstract:

SAMHD1 is a triphosphohydrolase enzyme that controls the intracellular level of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and plays a role in innate immune sensing and autoimmune disease. SAMHD1 has also been identified as an intrinsic virus restriction factor, inactivated through degradation by HIV-2 Vpx or through a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism. Phosphorylation of SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases has been strongly associated with inactivation of the virus restriction mechanism, providing an association between virus replication and cell proliferation. Tight regulation of cell proliferation suggests that viruses, particularly HIV-1 replication, latency, and reactivation, may be similarly controlled by multiple checkpoint mechanisms that, in turn, regulate dNTP levels. In this review, we discuss how SAMHD1 is a viral restriction factor, the mechanism associated with viral restriction, the pathway leading to its inactivation in proliferating cells, and how strategies aimed at controlling virus restriction could lead to a functional cure for HIV.

Autors: Ballana E, Esté JA.

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