IP-10 Levels as an Accurate Screening Tool to Detect Acute HIV Infection in Resource-Limited Settings

IP-10 Levels as an Accurate Screening Tool to Detect Acute HIV Infection in Resource-Limited Settings

Data de publicació online: 26/01/2018 Revista: Scientific Reports

Abstract:

Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the period prior to seroconversion characterized by high viral replication, hyper-transmission potential and commonly, non-specific febrile illness. AHI detection requires HIV-RNA viral load (VL) determination, which has very limited access in low-income countries due to restrictive costs and implementation constraints. We sought to identify a biomarker that could enable AHI diagnosis in scarce-resource settings, and to evaluate the feasibility of its implementation. HIV-seronegative adults presenting at the Manhiça District Hospital, Mozambique, with reported-fever were tested for VL. Plasma levels of 49 inflammatory biomarkers from AHI (n = 61) and non-HIV infected outpatients (n = 65) were determined by Luminex and ELISA. IP-10 demonstrated the best predictive power for AHI detection (AUC = 0.88 [95%CI 0.80–0.96]). A cut-off value of IP-10 ≥ 161.6 pg/mL provided a sensitivity of 95.5% (95%CI 85.5–99.5) and a specificity of 76.5% (95%CI 62.5–87.2). The implementation of an IP-10 screening test could avert from 21 to 84 new infections and save from US$176,609 to US$533,467 to the health system per 1,000 tested patients. We conclude that IP-10 is an accurate biomarker to screen febrile HIV-seronegative individuals for subsequent AHI diagnosis with VL. Such an algorithm is a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease progression and a substantial number of further HIV infections.

Autors: Pastor L, Casellas A, Carrillo J, Alonso S, Parker E, Fuente-Soro L, Jairoce C, Mandomando I, Blanco J, Naniche D

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